Risk Factors


Grading and Staging


The prostate is a reproductive organ found only in men. The prostate is located at the base of the bladder and its function is to produce seminal fluid, which mixes with sperm from the testes. Seminal fluid helps the sperm to travel and survive. Once produced by the prostate, seminal fluid is stored in the seminal vesicles, which are paired sac-like structures attached to the prostate. Through the center of the prostate runs the urethra. The urethra is a narrow tube that runs from the bladder along the length of the penis and allows. Urine and semen drain to outside of the body through the urethra.


Located the junction of the bladder and the prostate is the internal urinary sphincter. This structure is only present in men. Just beyond the junction of the prostate and the distal portion of the urethra is the external urinary sphincter, which is also known as the striated sphincter.

In women, this structure is located just beyond the base of the bladder. The sphincters are responsible for the control of urine flow. Of the two sphincters, only the external can be voluntarily controlled. Only the external sphincter is necessary for the control of urine. Along each side of the prostate runs a collection of blood vessels and nerves known as the neurovascular bundles. The neurovascular bundles originate from spinal cord and are responsible for delivering blood and neurological signals to the penis to become erect or engorge with blood. The rectum forms the lower end of the intestinal tract and connects to the anus. The rectum runs directly behind the prostate. It is possible to examine the prostate through the rectum with either a finger or an ultrasound probe.   

Anatomy & Function of the Prostate

Prostate Anatomy